Faced with the growing trend of urban garbage, countries around the world are trying to explore its disposal technology. Developed countries such as America, Germany, Sweden and Japan and other countries put forward the train of thought that living garbage reduction, recycling and harmless in the basis of realizing the living garbage classification collection through comprehensive treatment and established a fairly complete garbage classification collection processing system. With the development of the global waste disposal technology, the level of urban living garbage disposal in our country is increasing constantly. In 2000, China promulgated the “city life garbage disposal and pollution control technology policy”, which put forward the policy guidance of garbage disposal technology in our country that urban living garbage disposal shall comply with the principle of “reduction, recycling and harmless”, which vigorously promote the development of the city life garbage disposal in China .
All round the world development situation of urban living garbage disposal technology, Disposal technology which has developed more mature mainly are incineration, composting, separation recycling and sanitary landfill. In recent years, foreign also developed some more advanced solid waste treatment technology, but most of these techniques are in the testing phase or project is on a smaller scale, which needs to be development by a certain time and become a large-scale living garbage disposal technology.
Separation recycling is to classify and choose garbage according to the density, size, magnetic and optical properties and other physical properties of various components in urban living garbage, and have the resource recycling to those useful things. The technology can achieve the best utilization effect, choose address easily and investment and operation cost is low. Combining separation recycling waste classification and collection can achieve a good effect.
Incineration is a handling way that living garbage burns through incinerator and achieve living garbage pollution control standards. The technology has the advantage of small space, selecting site easily, Processing time shortly, reduction significantly, operating stably and reliably, innocuous treatment more thoroughly and recycling garbage waste heat of incineration, etc. Its limitations is that higher investment and running costs, and has certain requirements to the urban living garbage low calorific value, so not all living garbage can adopt the technology. Waste incineration is to destroy resources available in the living garbage disposal, which is a kind of the methods of dealing with the waste of resources. Even recycling heat energy can only achieve the goal that one-time “regeneration”, unable to realize resource recycling for many times, and the flue gas governance is difficult, If you run due to poor management, there will be the possibility of atmospheric pollution.
Compost is a handling way that Using microbial ferment, resolve, decompose the organic matter from the living garbage and move into a stable humus and soil conditioner. The technology including aerobic compost and anaerobic composting. Aerobic compost is a process that under the condition of full oxygen, decomposing certain substances in living garbage using aerobic microorganisms. Anaerobic composting, called Anaerobic digestion, is a process that under the condition of no oxygen, decomposing certain substances in living garbage using anaerobic microorganisms or Facultative microorganisms. Construction investment, the operating cost and occupancy area of this technology are between incineration and sanitary landfill. Compost technology made full use of the organic waste composition in the living garbage, there is an obvious effect of reduction and recycling. Fertilizer quality is closely related to the degree of garbage classification, with the promotion of urban living garbage classification technology, compost will be a good methods of garbage disposal.
Sanitary landfill is a handling way that according to the sanitary landfill technology standards, using the technology of anti-seepage, paving, compaction, covering deal with living garbage and gas, leachate and flies ,etc. This technology is the most long and mature in the history of dealing with urban living garbage, do not occur the production reducing situation because of maintenance or other accidents generally, and can realize running 24 hours a day, which is the last part of any garbage disposal system at the same time. Its operation is simple, operation management is convenient, investment and operation cost are low, but it will occupy larger square meter.
Technical analysis of the applications prospects
Along with the global urbanization accelerated, City life garbage pollution has caused extensive concern of the society from all walks of life. Garbage disposal problem has become a focus and difficult point in urban development.
Faced with the urban living garbage growing momentum, countries around the world trying to explore its processing technology. At present, domestic waste treatment technology mainly include composting, landfill, incineration, and comprehensive utilization. Developed countries such as Japan, the United States, Germany, France, Sweden announce a train of thought earlier to achieve garbage reduction, harmless and recycling through overall treatment on the basis of separate collection of garbage, and establish a fairly complete garbage classification collection processing system.
With the development of the global garbage disposal technology, the urban living garbage treatment technology in China has developed rapidly. The collection, transfer, transportation technology and equipment of living garbage has been increasingly mature, stable, formed a complete set and developed in the direction of industrialization step by step. Compost treatment technology and equipment are mature basically with the terms of industrialization. Incineration starts relatively late and is less mature technology of localization. Sanitary landfill processing technology applies rapidly and has been exploring more effective and easier leachate treatment technologies which are suitable for the situation of our country. In general, the level of urban living garbage treatment technology in China is still low, experience in comprehensive development and engineering exploration of new techniques and technologies is still absent.
The choice and application of the garbage disposal technology by the various factors impact including economic, geological conditions, the urbanization level, the purpose and requirements of garbage disposal and garbage output, composition, characteristics, etc. Due to the different region or city conditions, the technology route, technology measures and methods about garbage disposal are also different. in recent years, when many cities chose living garbage processing technology or pattern, even investigated many cities at home and abroad, but because of the lack of effective technical guidance of macro policy, they often failed to give full consideration to the region’s natural geographical conditions and garbage composition characteristics. Regardless of the local economy, the municipal finance, they copied advanced garbage disposal methods elsewhere, chose without destination and led to the large investment, poor effect, wasteful resources, secondary pollution and many other adverse consequences, which have had a profound impact to society and environment. In this way, many cities in Jiangsu province have had a profound lesson. For example, The southern some city in China decided to invest incineration equipment introduced from abroad without Comprehensive and in-depth analysis of basic composition and characteristics of the region’s rubbish, and led to the unstable operation of the equipment for a long time . High investment, high operation cost and low efficiency make the decision makers “riding a tiger”. And a city in Jiangsu province invested tens of millions of yuan to waste composting treatment without give full consideration to the market demand and the overall market forecast, eventually forced to shut down. Therefore, a comprehensive and in-depth understanding to the influence factors of garbage disposal technology choices is the basis of establishing processing technology selection model scientifically and objectively.
Nowadays, a new kind of garbage disposal technology is widely used. Beston Machinery, products the waste carbide series equipment, which has found another new method; Through carbonization technology, these equipment can deal with all kinds of household garbage, industrial waste. And in the treatment of the waste at the same time, there is no any pollution and zero emissions, which overcome many difficulties such as flue gas emissions, wastewater discharge, etc, and make the flags in waste treatment. series of garbage disposal equipment, Produced by Beston Machinery, all have won the high praise by many enterprises and far export overseas, which make the level of garbage disposal in China also ahead of the world advanced level.